Electroluminescence

Electroluminescence (EL) is an optical phenomenon and electrical phenomenon in which a material emits light in response to the passage of an electric current or to a strong electric field. This is distinct from black body light emission resulting from heat (incandescence), from a chemical reaction (chemiluminescence), sound (sonoluminescence), or other mechanical action (mechanoluminescence).

Mechanism
Electroluminescence is the result of radiative recombination of electrons and holes in a material, usually a semiconductor. The excited electrons release their energy as photons - light. Prior to recombination, electrons and holes may be separated either by doping the material to form a p-n junction (in semiconductor electroluminescent devices such as light-emitting diodes) or through excitation by impact of high-energy electrons accelerated by a strong electric field (as with the phosphors in electroluminescent displays).

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LED Wiki: Wi-Fi, Zigbee and Bluetooth compared
Key characteristics of ZigBee, Wi-Fi and Bluetooth
ZigBeeWi-FiBluetooth
Range10-100 meters50-100 meters10 – 100 meters
Networking TopologyAd-hoc, peer to peer, star, or meshPoint to hubAd-hoc, very small networks
Operating Frequency868 MHz (Europe) 900-928 MHz (NA), 2.4 GHz (worldwide)2.4 and 5 GHz2.4 GHz
Complexity (Device and application impact)LowHighHigh
Power Consumption (Battery option and life)Very low (low power is a design goal)HighMedium
Security128 AES plus application layer security 64 and 128 bit encryption
Typical ApplicationsIndustrial control and monitoring, sensor networks, building automation, home control and automation, toys, gamesWireless LAN connectivity, broadband Internet accessWireless connectivity between devices such as phones, PDA, laptops, headsets